Rose Bowl Game 2019 tickets now on sale

copyright 2010 Ramona Monteros

by Laura Berthold Monteros

Tickets to the 105th Rose Bowl Game presented by Northwestern Mutual are now on sale to the public online through Ticketmaster and PrimeSport. “The Granddaddy of Them All” is held in the Rose Bowl Stadium on Tuesday, Jan. 1, 2019 at 1 p.m. The match-up this time around will be the traditional Pac-12 Conference vs. the Big Ten Conference.

Here’s what fans need to know:

  • The Rose Bowl Game is a contractual sell-out, meaning rival teams and dignitaries hold most of the tickets, so those set aside for the public are limited.
  • There is a limit of four tickets per person.
  • Individual ticket prices start at $160 plus Ticketmaster fees.
  • In addition to online sales, tickets can be purchased by calling Ticketmaster at (800) 653-8000.
  • Prime Sport offers various VIP, hospitality, event, and travel packages.
  • Teams will be announced on ESPN on Sunday, Dec. 2.
  • More information on the game is at www.tournamentofroses.com.
  • Tickets for Pasadena residents usually go on sale the first weekend in December.

Watch this space for more information on how to get to the game and what to bring when we post “Insider’s Guide.”

Tournament of Roses chooses 44 girls as Royal Court finalists for 2019 parade

Photo courtesy Pasadena Tournament of Roses Association

 

by Laura Berthold Monteros

Whether this is unprecedented, we can’t say, but the class of finalists for the Rose Parade Royal Court is the largest we have seen in almost 10 years of covering the event. With 44 young women from 18 different schools, choosing just seven to serve on the 2019 court might be a more difficult task for the judges than choosing from the usual plus-or-minus 35. Seven girls will be announced as the Royal Court on Monday, Oct. 1. From these, the Rose Queen wil be chosen and announced on October 23. The 130th Rose Parade is on Jan. 1, 2019.

The group is diverse, though not as diverse as the general population in the Pasadena City College attendance boundaries from which the Royal Court is chosen. Pastel and flowered dresses seemed to be the favored choices, along with the almost obligatory long hair. We’ve charted the numbers and divided according to public and private schools, because that’s the way Pasadenans tote them up. With eight finalists, Mayfield Senior School could put together its own court with a lady-in-waiting.

 

Public Schools (8) City Total 21
Arcadia High School Arcadia 5
La Cañada High School La Cañada Flintridge 5
Marshall Fundamental High School Pasadena 1
Muir High School Pasadena 3
Pasadena High School Pasadena 2
San Marino High School San Marino 3
Temple City High School Temple City 1
Pasadena City College Pasadena 1
Private Schools (10) City Total 23
Alverno Heights Academy Sierra Madre 1
Flintridge Preparatory School La Cañada Flintridge 1
Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy La Cañada Flintridge 2
La Salle High School Pasadena 4
Manoukian High School Pasadena 1
Maranatha High School Pasadena 1
Mayfield Senior School Pasadena 8
Polytechnic High School Pasadena 2
Sequoyah High School Pasadena 1
Westridge School Pasadena 2

First row, from left: (#073) Faith van Haaster, Arcadia High School; (#119) Katia Khanlian, AGBU Vatche and Tamar Manoukian High School; (#156) Briana Anderson, John Muir High School; (#344) Pourobee Saha, Arcadia High School; (#059) Helen Rossi, Flintridge Preparatory School; (#020) Linzi Qi, Arcadia High School; (#014) Julia Bridges, La Cañada High School; (#371) Brook Acosta, Mayfield Senior School; (#254) Cecilia Trejo, Pasadena High School; (#362) Elysee Vielma, Mayfield Senior School.

 Second row, from left: (#203) Ashley Hackett, John Muir High School; (#110) Cynthia Hill, John Muir High School; (#262) Isabella Vinci, Mayfield Senior School; (#144) KC Young, John Marshall Fundamental High School; (#307) Katherine Choi, San Marino High School; (#264) Sasha Torres, Mayfield Senior School; (#107) Alyssa Cole, Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy; (#016) Natalia Talleda, La Cañada High School; (#507) Ashley Slocum, Mayfield Senior School.

Third row, from left: Row 3: (#469) McKenzie Minto, Polytechnic School; (#293) Divine Johnson, Pasadena High School; (#291) Gabriela Tavera, Maranatha High School; (#568) Helena Simpson, Arcadia High School; (#512) Audrey Sirois, La Salle High School; (#023) Sophie Woodman, La Salle High School; (#035) Samantha Grijalva, La Salle High School; (#399) Sydné Piatek, Pasadena City College; (#398) Emily Truong, La Cañada High School; (#194) Lily Brogdon-Mitchell, Mayfield Senior School.

Fourth row, from left: Row 4 From Left: (#284) Caroline Ivankovich, Mayfield Senior School; (#278) Hope Ferguson, Temple City High School; (#080) Margaret Chang, Arcadia High School; (#174) Sherry Ma, San Marino High School; (#078) Rucha Kadam, La Cañada High School; (#352) Sophie Blaisdell, Polytechnic School; (#392) Lauren Baydaline, Westridge School; (#081) Gwendalynn Stilson, La Cañada High School; (#019) Klarissa Barriga, Alverno Heights Academy.

Top row, from left: Row 5 From Left: (#147) Anaise Nugent, La Salle High School; (#442) Caroline Finnegan, Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy; (#274) Lauren Shain, Mayfield Senior School; (#326) Micaela McElrath, Westridge School; (#185) Steviana Perry, San Marino High School; (#393) Louise Siskel, Sequoyah High School.

 

Photos: The American West on horseback in the 2018 Rose Parade

2018 Tournament of Roses Parade: Ramona – California’s Official Outdoor Play. “The Ramona Pageant” is the longest-running outdoor play in the United States. It’s based on Helen Hunt Jackson’s novel, which was written to call attention to the treatment of Native Americans.

By Laura Berthold Monteros

The horse was integral to the American West, whether by the Spanish colonists, the indigenous people of the plains, or in the expansion of the United States. Equestrian units in the 129th Tournament of Roses Parade on Jan. 1, 2018, reflected this history with authentic garb and tack. The gallery below has photos of the historical equestrian groups that rode along Colorado Blvd. Also be sure to take a look at “Healing, helping, and glamour in 2018 Rose Parade equestrian units.” Marine Corps photos are here and Los Angeles Police Department are here.

Equestrian units pictured in the gallery

  • 1st Cavalry Division Horse Cavalry Detachment (Fort Hood, Texas)
  • Wells Fargo Stagecoaches (San Francisco, Calif.)
  • Los Hermanos Bañuelos Charro Team (Altadena, Calif.)
  • Ramona – California’s Official Outdoor Play (Hemet, Calif.)
  • The Valley Hunt Club (Pasadena, Calif.)
  • Budweiser Clydesdales (St. Louis, Mo.)
  • Spirit of the West Riders (Leona Valley, Calif.)
  • The New Buffalo Soldiers (Shadow Hills, Calif.)

 

Photos: Healing, helping, and glamour in 2018 Rose Parade equestrian units

2018 Tournament of Roses Parade: So Cal Mini Horse Sanctuary, Inc. (Hemet, Calif.)

By Laura Berthold Monteros

Riders decked out in glitzy costumes on horses with silver-studded tack are a standing order in the Tournament of Roses Parade. The 129th Rose Parade, held on Jan. 1, 2018, added therapy horses and law enforcement units in uniform to the mix. The gallery below has photos of khaki-and-olive drab mounted officers, angelic miniature horses, and shiny rhinestone cowboys and cowgirls. For authenic costuming, check out “The American West on horseback in the 2018 Rose Parade.” Marine Corps photos are here and Los Angeles Police Department are here.

Equestrian units pictured in the gallery

  • So Cal Mini Horse Sanctuary, Inc. (Hemet, Calif.)
  • Mini Therapy Horses (Calabasas, Calif.)
  • The Norco Cowgirls & The Little Miss Norco Cowgirls Rodeo Drill Teams (Norco, Calif.)
  • Scripps Miramar Ranch (San Diego, Calif.)
  • Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department Mounted Enforcement Detail (Los Angeles, Calif.)
  • Mane Attraction Equestrian Drill Team (Riverside, Calif.)
  • California Highway Patrol Mounted Patrol Unit (Sacramento, Calif.)
  • Broken Horn Ropers (Baldwin Park, Calif.)
  • The Valley Center Vaqueros (Valley Center, Calif.)

 

Equestrian units for 2019 Rose Parade announced

Altadena’s own Hermanos Banuelos in the 2018 Rose Parade

by Laura Berthold Monteros

The Tournament of Roses announced on Friday the 18 equestrian units that will be in the 130th Rose Parade on Jan. 1, 2019. There are the regulars, of course, and a few returning units, with three brand-new units, which is always exciting to see. They are Blue Shadows Mounted Drill Team, Gold Rush Fire Brigade, and Parsons Mounted Cavalry. The units showcase a variety of breeds, riding styles, and unique tack and costumes.

The groups are invited to participate in Equestfest on Dec. 29, 2018 at the Los Angeles Equestrian Center. During Equestfest, groups perform trick riding, drills, dancing and roping skills, and attendees can walk through the stables and speak with the riders. Tickets are available through Sharp Seating Company.

Equestrian groups selected for the 2019 Rose Parade

  • 1st Cavalry Division, Horse Cavalry Detachment (Fort Hood, Texas)
  • Blue Shadows Mounted Drill Team (Castaic, Calif.)
  • Budweiser Clydesdales (St. Louis, Mo.)
  • Calgary Stampede Showriders (Strathmore, Alberta, Canada)
  • Calif. Highway Patrol (Sacramento, Calif.)
  • Gold Rush Fire Brigade (Pilot Hill, Calif.)
  • Hawaii Pa’u Riders (Waimanalo, Hawaii)
  • Los Hermanos Banuelos Charro Team (Altadena, Calif.)
  • Mini Therapy Horses (Calabasas, Calif.)
  • Parsons Mounted Cavalry (College Station, Texas)
  • Scripps Miramar Ranch (San Diego, Calif.)
  • Spirit of the West Riders (Leona Valley, Calif.)
  • The New Buffalo Soldiers (Shadow Hills, Calif.)
  • The Norco Cowgirls Rodeo Drill Team & Little Miss Norco Cowgirls Jr. Drill Team (Norco, Calif.)
  • The Valley Hunt Club (Pasadena, Calif.)
  • United States Marine Corps Mounted Color Guard (Barstow, Calif.)
  • US Forest Service Pack Mules Celebrate Smokey Bear’s 75th (Vallejo, Calif.)
  • Wells Fargo Stagecoaches (San Francisco, Calif.)

Float judges for 2019 Rose Parade announced

Preston Bailey, Michael Berry, and Kimberly Oldis will judge the floats in the 130th Rose Parade

 

by Laura Berthold Monteros

The Tournament of Roses announced the three judges who will determine which float entries receive awards in the 130th Rose Parade on Jan. 1, 2019. The three are event designer Preston Bailey, president/CEO of the Kentucky Derby Festival Michael E. Berry, and floral and float designer Kimberly Oldis. The judges will distribute the 24 awards based on criteria including creative design, floral craftsmanship, artistic merit, computerized animation, thematic interpretation, floral and color presentation and dramatic impact.

Readers know The Rose Examiner usually does not state an opinion on the choices made by the Tournament, but this time, we will make an exception. Readers may have their own opinions, based on the bios below. Please state them in the comments.

First, we are not sure why only computerized animation will be considered. Manual animation on floats is rare today, but it does occur, and animation is still animation.

Then, there are the judges. Kimberly Oldis has, in our opinion, sterling credentials. She is not only a floral designer, but has designed Rose Parade floats for Charisma Floats from 2005 to 2010 and for Cal Poly Universities. But what about the others?

Preston Bailey has created stunning designs for weddings and other events, many of which would work as an element on floats, but they are not floats. A stationary installation is different from a moving sculpture. Will his experience translate into an understanding of how float design works? That it can’t be just a pretty piece, that it has to tell a story in 30 seconds that works on both TV and a city street?

Michael Berry certainly has event creds, but he will not be judging events. He will be judging floats. If the Tournament wanted to bring him on to help them jazz up the events surrounding the Rose Parade—pre- and post-parade viewing for example—it would be welcome. But a Rose Parade float is not an event, it is a creation.

Our biggest question is why, after recently moving away from the obligatory celebrity judge that was part of the equation for years, would the Tournament select two people who, in our opinion, are not qualified? What is the Tournament looking for?

Meet the judges

Here they are, straight from the media release (with style corrections), the three people who will decide who gets what in the 2019 Rose Parade.

Preston Bailey was named one of the best wedding planners in the world by Vogue Magazine and has been globally-celebrated for his unique ability to transform ordinary spaces into lush, theatrical environments. As a premier event designer, he has established a client roster that includes celebrities, royal families, CEOs and athletes. Since opening his design studio in 1980, Preston has been sought out to create one-of-a-kind, transformative designs that serve as backdrops for some of the most memorable moments of his clients’ lives.

A designer with a passion for creating designs to be enjoyed by the public as well as his clients, Preston has created numerous art installations featured across the world with showcases in New York, Las Vegas, Hong Kong, Jakarta, Taiwan, Macao and London. This passion for creating designs, also translated into his tabletop linen collection, a collaborative effort with Nüage Designs. He has also developed many licensing agreements, with, Sandals Resorts, Godiva Chocolate, Uncle Ben’s Rice and Hewlett-Packard among others.

Preston’s dedication to supporting and remaining accessible to the event designing industry, initiated the idea for his PB Protégé program, a series of specialized master classes that offer mentorship and education to industry professionals at all levels. The author of seven books—five of them bestsellers—Preston is often asked to share his experience through speaking engagements, seminars, editorial profiles and television and radio interviews.

Michael E. Berry is the longest serving President/CEO in the history of the Kentucky Derby Festival, one of the nation’s largest civic celebrations. Beginning his career at Festival in 1986, following service as an assistant to Kentucky’s governor, Mike’s experience has been 32 years in the making. Mike oversees the planning and production of the award-winning celebration with nearly 70 events on the Festival’s official schedule. With a staff of 22 and a 75-member board of directors, Mike orchestrates this award-winning celebration each year. The Derby Festival spans over two-weeks and seeks to dazzle and delight spectators from Louisville and surrounding areas.

Mike is a member of WDRB/FOX 41 Advisory Board, the Bellarmine University Communications Department Task Force, treasurer of the General Grand Chapter of Eastern Star, and a trustee of the Episcopal Church Home Foundation of Kentucky.

He has served on the boards of several organizations including the board of directors for the International Festivals and Events Association (IFEA), IFEA Foundation, Music Theatre of Louisville, Stage One Family Theatre, Louisville Theatrical Association, and Louisville Convention and Visitors Bureau. In 2008, Mike was an inductee in the International Festivals and Events Association Hall of Fame and an inductee in the Phi Kappa Tau Fraternity Hall of Fame. In 2012, Mike was inducted into the DeMolay International Hall of Fame and was the 2011 recipient of the Louisville Defender Outstanding Community Service Award.

Kimberly Oldis AIFD has been involved in the floral industry for over 44 years, including 21 years as a member of The American Institute of Floral Designers. Kim serves as the past president for the AIFD National Board. She previously held many elected offices in the North Central and North West Regional Chapters of AIFD. In 2008, Kim was the AIFD Symposium Chairman in Chicago. Volunteering for the Institute is her contribution to the floral industry.

Kim was involved with the Rose Parade from 2005 to 2010 as a Rose Parade float designer with Charisma Floats. Most recently she had volunteered as a designer with Cal Poly. Through Charisma, she had the privilege to be on the floral design team at the Academy Awards for four years. Kim had the honor to design for the 2004 Presidential Inauguration in Washington, D.C. and was invited to design in 2015 at the White House.

Currently Kim is a freelance and event designer. For 16 years she owned Kimberly’s Flower Shop in Glen Ellyn, Ill. From 2001 to 2007, she was the assistant director of the Chicago Flower and Garden Show. “Engage, Educate and Enlighten” is the mantra that drives Kim’s floral mission; floristry is her passion.

 

Photos of Royal Court hopefuls at the tryouts for 2019

The signature setpiece for the 2019 Rose Parade, with Lela adding some sparkle. The piece was designed by Katie Lipp, graphic designer for the Tournament, and built by float and scenic design company AES. Lipp was a princess on the 2014 Royal Court.

by Laura Berthold Monteros

For many Pasadena area girls, it’s a rite of passage. For some, it’s a time to do something special with their friends. For others, they hope to make a statement. For all, the process is the same: Fill out an application, come to Tournament House on what is usually one of the hottest Saturdays of the year (or Monday for make-ups), get a number, sit for orientation by members of the outgoing Royal Court, and walk the gantlet of Queen & Court Committee judges. For 15 seconds, each girl has the opportunity to say why she would like to be on the Tournament of Roses Royal Court, and perhaps even becom the Rose Queen.

There is a small reward at the end. Docents lead group tours of Tournament House (the former Wrigley Mansion) throughout the day, and each girl gets a poster, a photo with a red long-stemmed rose, and two tickets to the Royal Ball a week or so later. And a few get to talk to The Rose Examiner! We talked to five young ladies and one gentleman at the tryouts on Sept. 8, and as usual, it was very interesting. They all attend high schools in Pasadena.

 

Lela is a senior at John Muir High School. Her ambition is to raise her GPA from 4.0 to 4.5, and be the valedictorian for her class. She is a member of the National Honor Society (NHS), vice president of the ASB, and treasurer of the BSU. She runs track and plays volleyball, but we talked about her service as a Student Ambassador for the Tournament.

“It’s pretty fun,” Lela said. She commented that it was “surprising” to learn  how nice and outgoing the people at the Tournament are. “They like to make jokes,” she added. She said that white suiters are sweet and are not as intimidating as one might think. (The term “white suiter” refers to members of the Pasadena Tournament of Roses Association, because they wear white suits to events.) it feels like “a warm and welcoming environment,” she said.

She said the process was “less nerve-wracking than I envisioned.” She would like to inspire black and brown girls to try out for the Royal Court, and “not to shy away from open doors.”

 

Jocelyn, who attends Marshal Fundamental School, told The Rose Examiner that she was nervous, because she hadn’t dressed the way most of the other girls had, but “I’m glad I did it, because it was a pretty good experience.” She would tell people who might be unsure about trying out, “It’s not as scary as  you think.” All the girls and the staff were fun, she said.

For her statement to the judges, Jocelyn told us she said “The reason I’m here is because I’ve never seen another girl like me on the court.” (We didn’t get a photo, but we can vouch that Jocelyn has the demeanor and poise to be a princess.) She affirmed, “I think it would be cool for other girls like me to see themselves in a respected institution.”

Jocelyn is a member of NHS and has served in the cabinet at Marshall since her sophomore year. She’s on the tennis team and GSA, and takes “lots of AP classes.”

 

Back at “The Melody of Life” setpiece, we found a group of three. Sylvie and Richard attend Blair High School, and Haley attends Maranatha. Richard participated in the tryouts to get tickets to the ball—and yes, even though boys are not chosen for the Royal Court, they do get the same perks as the girls who try out. Still, he enjoyed the process and said it was “good practice for the future” to have to craft a quick statement. He plays flute in the jazz band and is vice president of the ASB.

Asked why she tried out, Sylvie said, “The tickets don’t hurt!” She said she agrees that it’s good practice. Being on the court would be a good opportunity to inspire people, especially children.

“I know the queen and court do a lot of outreach,” she said. I want to be a princess, she said, but for the community service, not the title. Sylvie plays clarinet in the jazz band, is on the tennis team, and serves the site counsel representative for the ASB.

Haley told us her family has watched the Rose Parade for 50 years, so “I’ve seen it every year of my life.” She looks up to the court and has seen the impact the Royal Courts have had on the community. “They do a lot of good things for Pasadena,” she said. Haley is on the volleyball team at Maranatha.

 

Gabriela attends John Marshall Fundamental School, and is a real Rose Parade aficionado. She has lived her entire life in Pasadena, and watches the parade with her dad every year. She has worked on floats, and has come to the parade for the past three years.

Being on the court would be “a good opportunity to meet new people,” Gabriels said, and “a great experience as well.” She added that it’s also a tradition at her school for girls to try out. She is in the Puente program and just joined Unidos, a club that focuses on community service.

 

Keep following The Rose Examiner and subscribe in the box at the left, to find out who will serve on the Royal Court for the 130th Tournament of Roses Parade!

 

Rose Bowl Hall of Fame 2018: George Halas, Randall McDaniel, Pop Warner and Vince Young

Stanford 1924: Claude E. Thornhill, Pop Warner, Andrew Kerr, Jim Lawson. Fair use.

from a Rose Bowl Game media release

The Tournament of Roses announced on Monday that Illinois graduate and Chicago Bears founder George Halas, former Arizona State and NFL offensive lineman Randall McDaniel, former Stanford head coach Pop Warner and former Texas and NFL quarterback Vince Young will be inducted into the Rose Bowl Hall of Fame as the Class of 2018.

The Rose Bowl Hall of Fame was established in 1989 to pay tribute to members of the Rose Bowl Game who have contributed to the history and excitement of the game, and those who embody the highest level of passion, strength, tradition and honor associated with The Granddaddy of Them All. Inductees are honored with a permanent plaque at The Court of Champions at the Rose Bowl Stadium, ride in the Rose Parade, and are recognized on the field during the Rose Bowl Game.

The induction ceremony will take place on Dec. 31, 2018, at the Lot K Tent outside of the Rose Bowl Stadium, one day prior to the 105th Rose Bowl Game. More information online. The 2019 game will return to the traditional format, with a team from the Big Ten meeting a team from the Pac-12 on Tuesday, Jan. 1.

George Halas was a three-sport athlete at the University of Illinois, but played in the 1919 Rose Bowl Game as a member of the Great Lakes Navy. Halas led the Navy to a 17-0 win over the Mare Island Marines and was named MVP of the game. He scored on a 32 yard touchdown reception and added an interception, which he returned for 77 yards – a record that still stands today as the longest non-scoring interception return. Following his time in the Navy, Halas founded the Chicago Staleys, who became the Chicago Bears in 1921. Halas was the player-coach of the Bears for 10 years and spent four stints as the team’s head coach, spanning nearly 50 years. The Bears won 324 games and six NFL titles under his tutelage, both of which stood as NFL records until broken in 1993.

Randall McDaniel has been considered by many to be the best pulling guard in NFL history and was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 2009. Prior to his professional career, McDaniel led the Arizona State Sun Devils to a 1986 Pac-10 title. The 1987 Morris Trophy winner, given to the Pac-10 Offensive Lineman of the Year, was one of the best players on the Sun Devil team that went on to defeat the Michigan State Spartans in the Rose Bowl Game, 22-15. The two-time All-American was inducted into the ASU Hall of Fame in 1999, the College Football Hall of Fame in 2008, the State of Arizona Hall of Fame in 2011 and was named to the Pac-12 All-Century Team in 2015. Since retiring from professional football, McDaniel has been an elementary school teacher in Minnesota and has started, worked with, and funded numerous charitable and philanthropic efforts in Minnesota and Arizona.

Glenn Scobey “Pop” Warner is regarded as one of the most innovative and creative coaches in college football history. A coaching career that spanned nearly 45 years, Warner won a then-record 319 games and four national championships, the first three at the University of Pittsburgh and the final one at Stanford in 1926. The legendary coach made three appearances in the Rose Bowl Game and compiled a 1-1-1 record. The first time he brought a team to the Granddaddy of Them All, Warner’s Stanford team was defeated by Knute Rockne and the Four Horseman of Notre Dame, 27-10, on January 1, 1925. Two years later, Warner and Stanford returned to Pasadena for the 1927 Rose Bowl Game and tied Alabama, 7-7, with both schools named National Champions. Warner earned his first victory in a Rose Bowl Game in his third try, the following year in 1928, by defeating his former team, the Pitt Panthers, 7-6.

Vince Young is one of only four players to win Rose Bowl Player of the Game honors twice after leading the Texas Longhorns to back-to-back Rose Bowl Game victories in 2005 and 2006. Against Michigan in 2005, Young threw for 186 yards and a touchdown, while also adding 192 yards and four touchdowns on the ground in a 38-37 victory over the Wolverines.   The following year, in what is widely regarded as one of the greatest bowl games ever played, Young led the Longhorns to a 41-38 come-from-behind win over the USC Trojans in the BCS National Championship. In the victory, Young managed to outdo his numbers from the previous year as he completed 30-of-40 passes for 267 yards, rushed for 200 yards on 19 carries and scored three total touchdowns while rallying the Longhorns to victory, overcoming a 12-point deficit with less than seven minutes left in the game. Young set Rose Bowl Game records in the game for total yards (467), rushing yards by a quarterback (200), touchdowns (5) and points responsible for (30).